Rights and Duties Constitution of India

Fundamental Rights (Part III):

  1. Right to Equality (Articles 14-18):
    • Equality before the law (Article 14).
    • Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth (Article 15).
    • Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment (Article 16).
    • Abolition of untouchability (Article 17).
    • Abolition of titles (Article 18).
  2. Right to Freedom (Articles 19-22):
    • Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc. (Article 19).
    • Protection in respect of conviction for offenses (Article 20).
    • Protection of life and personal liberty (Article 21).
    • Right to education (Article 21A, added by the 86th Amendment Act, 2002).
    • Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases (Article 22).
  3. Right Against Exploitation (Articles 23-24):
    • Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labor (Article 23).
    • Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc. (Article 24).
  4. Right to Freedom of Religion (Articles 25-28):
    • Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice, and propagation of religion (Article 25).
    • Freedom to manage religious affairs (Article 26).
    • Freedom as to payment of taxes for the promotion of any particular religion (Article 27).
    • Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions (Article 28).
  5. Cultural and Educational Rights (Articles 29-30):
    • Protection of interests of minorities (Article 29).
    • Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions (Article 30).
  6. Right to Constitutional Remedies (Article 32):
    • Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part.

Fundamental Duties (Part IV-A):

The Fundamental Duties were added by the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976. There are 11 Fundamental Duties mentioned in Article 51A:

  1. To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions.
  2. To cherish and follow the noble ideals that inspired the national struggle for freedom.
  3. To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity, and integrity of India.
  4. To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so.
  5. To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood among all the people of India.
  6. To value and preserve the rich heritage of the country’s composite culture.
  7. To protect and improve the natural environment, including forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife.
  8. To develop the scientific temper, humanism, and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
  9. To safeguard public property and to abjure violence.
  10. To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity.
  11. To provide opportunities for education to the child between the ages of 6 and 14 years (added by the 86th Amendment Act, 2002).
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